Timolol (Ophthalmic)

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Timolol belongs to a group of medicines called beta-blockers. Timolol for Ophthalmic use, lowers the pressure in the eyes. It is used to treat glaucoma, when the pressure in the eye is raised.

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Timolol.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Timolol is a nonselective beta-blocker that works by lowering the intraocular pressure by reducing the production of aqueous humor within the eye. How Timolol reduces the production of acqueous humor is not clearly established, but inhibition of the increased cyclic AMP synthesis caused by endogenous beta-adrenergic stimulation is probable
Raised pressure in the eye causes damage to the retina and to the optic nerve that sends signals from the eye to the brain. This can result in serious vision loss and even blindness. By lowering the pressure, Timolol reduces the risk of damage.

[edit] INDICATIONS

Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.

[edit] DOSAGE

The usual starting dose is one drop of 0.25% solution in the affected eye(s) twice a day. If the clinical response is not adequate, the dosage may be changed to one drop of 0.5% solution in the affected eye(s) twice a day.
When using nasolacrimal occlusion or closing the eyelids for 2 minutes, the systemic absorption is reduced. This may result in a decrease in systemic side effects and an increase in local activity.
In some patients the pressure-lowering response to Timolol may require a few weeks to stabilize, evaluation should include a determination of intraocular pressure after approximately 4 weeks of treatment.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Bronchial asthma or with a history of bronchial asthma, or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Sinus bradycardia; second and third degree atrioventricular block; overt cardiac failure; cardiogenic shock
  • Hypersensitivity to any component

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

  • Pregnancy Category C (US). Timolol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
  • Timolol has been detected in human milk following oral and ophthalmic drug administration. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from timolol in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Timolol is usually well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse experiences have been burning and stinging upon instillation (approximately one in eight patients).

Possible systemic side effects: Headaches, Headache, asthenia/fatigue, Bradycardia, hypotension and Bronchospasm (predominantly in patients with pre-existing bronchospastic disease)

[edit] RELATED LINKS

Understanding Glaucoma

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES