Marbofloxacin

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Marbofloxacin.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Marbofloxacin is a third generation, broad-spectrum bactericidal agents of the fluoroquinolone class with a wide range activity against gram-negative (Escherichia Coli, Salmonella Aertricke, Citrobacter freundii, Aerobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Proteus sp, Klebsiella sp, Shigella sp, Pasteurella sp, Haemophilus sp, Moraxella sp, Pseudomonas sp, Brucella canis), gram-positive organisms (especially Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) and Mycoplasma.

fluoroquinolones inhibits bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. DNA gyrase catalyzes the negative supercoiling of the circular DNA found in bacteria and Topoisomerase IV, on the other hand, is involved in the separation process of the DNA daughter chains after bacterial DNA duplication.

Depending on the type of bacterium, these enzymes represent either the primary or secondary target of antimicrobial action. In Gram-negative bacteria, fluoroquinolones predominantly inhibit DNA gyrase, whereas for Gram-positive organisms like Staph.aureus, Topoisomerase IV is the principle target.

Ultimately, the action of fluoroquinolones on DNA gyrase or on topoisomerase IV, results in damage to bacterial DNA and bacterial cell death.

Marbofloxacin has the highest known tissue concentrations in the skin, kidney and lung compared with other veterinary-approved fluoroquinolones at the lowest recommended dose

[edit] INDICATIONS

Treatment of infections in dogs and cats associated with bacteria susceptible to marbofloxacin:

  • skin and soft-tissue infections in dogs and cats
  • urinary tract infections in dogs

[edit] DOSAGE

2 mg/kg in a single administration, i.e :

  • 5 mg tablet: 1 tablet for 2.5 kg
  • 20 mg tablet: 1 tablet for 10 kg
  • 80 mg tablet: 1 tablet for 40 kg

For the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections, Marbofloxacin tablets should be given for 2–3 days beyond the cessation of clinical signs for a maximum of 30 days.

For the treatment of urinary tract infections, Marbofloxacin tablets should be administered for at least 10 days. If no improvement is noted within 5 days, the diagnosis should be re-evaluated and a different course of therapy considered.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Marbofloxacin is contraindicated in immature dogs during the rapid growth phase (small and medium breeds up to 8 months of age, large breeds up to 12 months of age and giant breeds up to 18 months of age). Marbofloxacin is contraindicated in cats under 12 months of age.
  • Marbofloxacin is contraindicated in dogs and cats known to be hypersensitive to quinolones.

[edit] PRECAUTIONS

  • Quinolones should be used with caution in animals with known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In such animals, quinolones have, in rare instances, been associated with CNS stimulation which may lead to convulsive seizures.
  • Quinolones have been shown to produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.
  • The use of fluoroquinolones in cats has been reported to adversely affect the retina. Such products should be used with caution in cats.

[edit] INTERACTIONS

  • Compounds (e.g., sucralfate, antacids, and mineral supplements) containing divalent and trivalent cations (e.g., iron, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, and zinc) can interfere with the absorption of quinolones which may result in a decrease in product bioavailability. Therefore, the concomitant oral administration of quinolones with foods, supplements, or other preparations containing these compounds should be avoided.

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

The safety of marbofloxacin in animals used for breeding purposes, pregnant, or lactating has not been demonstrated

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

The following clinical signs were reported during the course of clinical field studies in dogs receiving marbofloxacin at dosages up to 5,5 mg/kg daily: decreased or loss of appetite (5.4%), decreased activity (4.4%), and vomiting (2.9%). The following signs were reported in less than 1% of cases in dogs: increased thirst, soft stool/diarrhea, behavioral changes, shivering/shaking/tremors, and ataxia. One dog which had a seizure the day before study enrollment experienced a seizure while on marbofloxacin therapy.

The following clinical signs were reported during clinical field studies in cats receiving 2,75 mg/kg/day: diarrhea (2.1%) and soft stool (1.4%). Vomiting was reported in less than 1% of cases in cats.

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