Latanoprost

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Latanoprost (Xalatan) is a prostaglandin analogue used to treat open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It works by increasing the natural outflow of fluid from inside the eye into the bloodstream.

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[edit] STRUCTURE

Latanoprost.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Latanoprost, is a prostaglandin F analogue. In the eye, prostaglandin increases the drainage of the watery fluid (aqueous humour) out of the eyeball. Latanoprost acts in the same way and increases the outflow of aqueous humour via trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral pathways. This helps to reduce the intraocular pressure.

Raised pressure in the eye causes damage to the retina and to the optic nerve that sends signals from the eye to the brain. This can result in serious vision loss and even blindness. By lowering the pressure, Latanoprost reduces the risk of damage.

Reduction of the intraocular pressure starts approximately 3 to 4 hours after administration and the maximum effect is reached after 8 to 12 hours.

[edit] INDICATIONS

Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.

[edit] DOSAGE

The recommended dosage is one drop of Latanoprost in the conjunctival sac of the affected eye(s) once daily.
Optimal effect is obtained if the dose is administered in the evening.

When using nasolacrimal occlusion or closing the eyelids gently, the systemic absorption is reduced. This may result in a decrease in systemic side effects and an increase in local activity

Remove contact lenses prior to application and wait 15 minutes after instillation of the dose before reinsertion

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to any component

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Pigmentation: Latanoprost may gradually change the eye colour by increasing the number of melanosomes (pigment granules) in melanocytes. This change may be permanent. Increased pigmentation of periorbital tissue (eyelid) and eyelashes has been reported as well.
  • Eyelash changes: Latanoprost may increase the length, thickness, colour and/or number of eyelashes and may cause unusual hair growth on your eyelids. eyelash changes are usually reversible.

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

  • Pregnancy Category C (US). Latanoprost should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
  • It is unknown whether Latanoprost or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Latanoprostis administered to a nursing woman.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Reported treatment-related undesirable effect include: conjunctival hyperemia (Usually mild), blurred vision, eye discomfort (pruritus, irritation and pain), foreign body sensation, iris hyperpigmentation, periocular hyperpigmentation, changes in eyelashes (increased length, thickness, number of lashes and discolouration), dry eye, excessive, increased lacrimation and photophobia.

[edit] RELATED LINKS

Understanding Glaucoma

http://www.pfizer.com/products/rx/rx_product_xalatan.jsp

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES