Ketorolac

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Contents

[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Ketorolac.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Ketorolac is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. Ketorolac inhibits the enzyme, cyclooxygenase (both COX-1 and COX-2 isoenzymes), an early component of the arachidonic acid cascade, resulting in the reduced formation of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins act as messenger molecules in the process of inflammation and are involved in the way we feel pain and the development of fever.

[edit] INDICATIONS

  • Short-term (≤5 days) management of moderately severe, acute pain following surgical procedures, that requires analgesia at the opioid level

[edit] DOSAGE

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to Ketorolac or to any other NSAID
  • As prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery
  • Patients with severe heart failure.
  • Patients with severe renal failure (glomerular filtration below 30 mL/min).
  • Patients with conditions involving an increased tendency to bleeding
  • Active gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation
  • In labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine musculature, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage.
  • Pregnancy
  • Nursing mothers

[edit] PRECAUTIONS

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

[edit] RELATED LINKS

NSAIDs: MOAs and Clinical Considerations

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors) Aceclofenac   Acetylsalicylic acid   Benzydamine   Diclofenac   Flurbiprofen   Ibuprofen   Indometacin   Ketoprofen   Ketorolac   Ketorolac   Lornoxicam   Mefenamic acid   Morniflumate   Nabumetone   Naproxen   Niflumic acid   Piroxicam   Tenoxicam
Relatively COX-2 selective Meloxicam   Nimesulide
COX-2 selective inhibitors (Coxibs) Celecoxib   Etoricoxib   Parecoxib
Ophthalmic NSAIDs Bromfenac (ophthalmic)   Diclofenac (ophthalmic)   Flurbiprofen (ophthalmic)   Ketorolac (ophthalmic)   Nepafenac (ophthalmic)
Veterinary use Carprofen   Deracoxib   Firocoxib   Mavacoxib   Robenacoxib
Antimigraine preparations
5 HT1 agonists (Triptans) Almotriptan (Almogran, Axert)   Eletriptan (Relpax)   Frovatriptan (Frova, Migard, Menatriptan)   Rizatriptan (Maxalt)   Sumatriptan (Imigran)   Zolmitriptan (Zomig)
Ergot alkaloids Dihydroergotamine   Ergotamine
NSAIDs/ Analgesics Indometacin   Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin)   Diclofenac (Voltaren)   Ibuprofen (Advil, Brufen, Dolgit, Nurofen)   Ketorolac (Toradol)   Naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve)   Nimesulide   Paracetamol (Efferalgan, Panadol...)
Prophylaxis Cinnarizine (Stugeron, Stugeron forte)   Flunarizine (Sibelium)   Nifedipine (Adalat)   Pizotifen   Propranolol (Inderal)   Topiramate (Topamax)