Hydroquinone

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Contents

[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Hydroquinone.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Topical application of hydroquinones produce a reversible depigmentation of the skin by the inhibition of the enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine to 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and supression of other melanocyte metabolic processes. Exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light will cause repigmentation of the bleached areas

[edit] INDICATIONS

Hydroquinone is indicated for the gradual bleaching of hyperpigmented skin conditions such as chloasma (facial pigmentation during pregnancy), melasma (facial pigmentation), freckles, senile lentigines and other undesired areas of melanin hyperpigmentation.

[edit] DOSAGE

4% CREAM or GEL should be applied to affected areas twice daily, in the morning and before bedtime, or as directed by a physician. Unnecessary solar exposure should be avoided.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to hydroquinone or any of the other ingredients.
  • The safety of topical treatment of hydroquinone during pregnancy or in children (12 years and under) has not been established.

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • To evaluate possible susceptibility to irritation or sensitivity, each patient should begin by applying the medication to a small portion of unbroken skin at or near the pigmented area over a period of several days. Minor redness is not necessarily a contraindication, but treatment should be discontinued if itching, excessive inflammation, or vesicle formation occurs. Use of Hydroquinone in paranasal and infraorbital areas increases the chance of irritations. If no improvement is seen after two months of treatment, use of this product should be discontinued.
  • Sunscreen use is an essential aspect of hydroquinone therapy since even minimal sunlight exposure stimulates melanocyte activity. Some Hydroquinone products contain Sunscreens and provide the necessary sun protection during skin bleaching activity. During the depigmentation maintenance treatment subsequent to the intensive depigmentation therapy, sun exposure of the bleached skin should be avoided to prevent repigmentation. Other products doesn't contain sunblocking or sunscreen agents, so sun exposure should be minimized by using a sunscreen agent, or protective clothing to cover bleached skin in order to prevent repigmentation from occurring.
  • Avoid contact with eyes. In case of accidental contact, patient should rinse eyes thoroughly with water and contact physician. A bitter taste and antiseptic effect may occur if applied to the lips.

[edit] INTERACTIONS

Do not use at the same time with apreparation containing Hydrogen Peroxide, Benzoyl Peroxide or another strong oxidant

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

Pregnancy Category C (US): Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with hydroquinone. It is also not known whether hydroquinone can cause fetal harm when administered on a pregnant women or can affect reproductive capacity. It is also not known to what degree, if any, topical hydroquinone is absorbed systemically. Topical hydroquinone should be used in pregnant women only when clearly indicated.

Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether topical administration of hydroquinone is absorbed or excreted in human milk. Caution is advised when topical hydroquinone is used by nursing mother.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Some side effects may occur during treatment with this medicine such as: mild burning sensation, mild redness.

Side effects which require special attention:

  • Hypersensitivity (irritation, blisters, skin inflammation, shortness of breath) (rare): Discontinue treatment and contact your physician.
  • Prolonged use of this medicine might cause Ochronosis (blue-dark pigmentation of the skin, very rare): Discontinue treatment and contact your physician.

[edit] RELATED LINKS

Is Hydroquinone Safe and Effective

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES