Hydrochlorothiazide

From Drugs Prescribing Information
(Redirected from Esidrex)
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

[edit] BRAND NAMES

  • Other: Apo-hydro, Aquazide H, Dichlotride, Esidrex, Ezide, Hydrodiuril

[edit] STRUCTURE

Hydrochlorothiazide.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic, it acts on the distal convoluted tubule by inhibiting the sodium-chloride symporter. thus, it reduces NaCl reabsorption, leading to a retention of water in the urine.

This symporter reabsorbs about 5% of filtered sodium. Hydrochlorothiazide is less efficacious than loop diuretics in producing diuresis. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently powerful to satisfy most therapeutic needs requiring a diuretic, making it one of the mostly used diuretics.

Hydrochlorothiazide enhance also Ca++ reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule by inhibiting Na+ entry and thus enhancing the activity of Na+-Ca++ exchanger in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells.

After oral administration of hydrochlorothiazide, diuresis begins within 2 hours, peaks in about 4 hours and lasts about 6 to 12 hours

[edit] INDICATIONS

  • Treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs
  • Treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure
  • Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) due to hypercalciuria
  • Diabetes insipidus (Hydrochlorothiazide has an antidiuretic effect in diabetes insipidus)

[edit] DOSAGE

Hypertension: The adult initial dose of is 12,5 mg given once daily whether given alone or in combination with other antihypertensives. Total daily doses greater than 50 mg are not recommended.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Anuria
  • Hypersensitivity to Hydrochlorothiazide or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.

[edit] PRECAUTIONS

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

  • Pregnancy Category B (US). Hydrochlorothiazide should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
  • Nursing Mothers: Thiazides are excreted in breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

  • Electrolyte imbalance: Hyperkalemia due to potassium retention (rarely and especially in patients with renal dysfunction). Hypokalemia can be usually prevented by potassium supplements or by combining hydrochlorothiazide with a potassium-sparing diuretic. Hypomagnesemia (low magnesium), Hyponatremia (low sodium), Hypercalcemia (high calcium) and dehydration, that may cause dry mouth, hypotension including orthostatic hypotension, fatigue, muscle cramps and dizziness.
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hyperuricemia
  • Gastrointestinal disorders (such as loss of appetite, dyspepsia , nausea , vomiting , abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea or constipation).
  • Hypersensitivity reactions (Rare)

[edit] RELATED LINKS

[edit] REFERENCES

Antihypertensives
ACE inhibitors Benazepril (Lotensin)   Captopril (Capoten)   Cilazapril   Delapril   Enalapril (Renitec, Vasotec)   Fosinopril (Monopril)  Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)   Moexipril (Univasc)  Perindopril (Aceon)  Quinapril (Accupril)  Ramipril (Altace, Triatec)   Trandolapril (Mavik)  Zofenopril (Bifril, Zopranol)
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Azilsartan (Edarbi)   Candesartan (Atacand)   Eprosartan (Teveten)   Irbesartan (Aprovel, Avapro, Karvea)   Losartan (Cozaar)   Olmesartan (Benicar, Olmetec)   Telmisartan (Micadis)   Valsartan (Diovan, Tareg)
Renin inhibitors Aliskiren (Rasilez, Tekturna)
Alpha-1 blockers Doxazosin (Cardura)   Prazosin (Minipress)   Terazosin (Hytrin)
Alpha-2 agonists (centrally acting) Clonidine (Oral route)   Clonidine (Transdermal) (Catapresan)   Guanfacine (Tenex)   Methyldopa (Aldomet)
Calcium channel blockers Dihydropyridines‎ Amlodipine (Norvasc)   Barnidipine (Vasexten)   Felodipine (Plendil)   Isradipine (Dynacirc)   Lacidipine (Lacipil, Motens)   Lercanidipine (Zanidip)   Manidipine   Nicardipine   Nifedipine (Adalat)   Nisoldipine   Nitrendipine
Benzothiazepine‎ Diltiazem (Cardizem, Taztia XT, Tiazac, Tildiem)
Phenylalkylamine‎ Gallopamil   Verapamil (Calan)
Beta blockers Beta1 selective (cardioselective) Acebutolol (Sectral)   Atenolol (Tenormin)   Betaxolol (Kerlon)   Bisoprolol (Concor)   Celiprolol (Cordiax)   Metoprolol (Betaloc, Lopressor, Toprol-XL)   Nebivolol (Bystolic, Lobivon, Nebilox)
Nonselective (Beta1 and Beta2 blockers) Oxprenolol (Trasitensin)   Propranolol (Inderal)   Timolol (Blocadren)
Nonselective (Beta1, Beta2 and Alpha1 blockers) Carvedilol (Dilatrend)   Labetalol (Trandate)
Beta blocker with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) Acebutolol (Sectral)   Celiprolol (Cordiax)
Lipophilic Beta blockers Propranolol (Inderal)   Metoprolol (Betaloc, Lopressor, Toprol-XL)   Oxprenolol (Trasitensin)
Diuretics Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Acetazolamide (Diamox)
Loop diuretics Bumetanide   Etacrynic acid   Furosemide (Lasix)   Piretanide   Torasemide (Demadex)
Thiazide diuretics Chlorothiazide (Diuril)   Hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrex)
Thiazide-like diuretics Chlortalidone (Hygroton)   Indapamide (Lozol, Lozide)   Metolazone
Potassium-sparing diuretics Epithelial sodium channel blockers: Amiloride (Midamor)   Triamterene (Dyrenium)
Aldosterone receptor antagonists: Potassium canrenoate   Eplerenone (Inspra)   Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Osmotic diuretics Mannitol
Combination therapy Amiloride/Hydrochlorothiazide (Moduretic)   Spironolactone/Hydrochlorothiazide (Aldactazide)