Dimenhydrinate

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Dimenhydrinate.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Dimenhydrinate, an anti-nauseant/antimemetic is the 8-Chlorotheophylline salt of diphenhydramine. 8-Chlorotheophylline, a mild central nervous system stimulants was added in order to counteract drowsiness.

Dimenhydrinate acts as antihistamine (H1-antagonist) with anticholinergic (antimuscarinic), exerting parasympatholytic and centrally-depressant effects. its antiemetic and antivertiginous effects may be related to the central anticholinergic actions on the central vestibular system: Dimenhydrinate diminish vestibular stimulation and depress labyrinthine function.

[edit] INDICATIONS

  • Prevention and treatment of nausea vomiting and dizziness associated with all types of motion sickness including carsickness and seasickness
  • Vertigo due to labyrinthine disorders

[edit] DOSAGE

  • Motion sickness (Tablets):
    • Adults and children 12 years and over: 50 to 100 mg every 4-6 hours; maximum dosage: 400 mg in 24 hours
    • Children 6-12 years: 25-50 mg every 6-8 hours; maximum dosage: 150 mg in 24 hours
    • Children 2 to under 6 years: 25 mg tablet every 6-8 hours; maximum dosage: 75 mg in 24 hours.
      To prevent motion sickness, the first dose should be taken ½ to 1 hour before starting activity

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to Dimenhydrinate or to diphenhydramine
  • Children under the age of two years

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Patients using Dimenhydrinate should be cautioned against operating automobiles or machinery requiring alertness because of the possiblility of drowsiness associated with its use.
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages.
  • Patients with glaucoma (use with caution)
  • Urine retention due to an enlargement of the prostate gland (use with caution)
  • Breathing problem such as asthma, emphysema or chronic bronchitis (use with caution)

[edit] INTERACTIONS

  • The effects of hypnotic, sedative and tranquilizing drugs may be synergistic if given concomitantly

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Drowsiness is the most common. Dizziness may also occur. Symptoms of dry mouth, fatigue, excitement and nausea have been reported.

[edit] RELATED LINKS

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES

Antiemetics
5-HT3 receptor antagonists Dolasetron   Granisetron   Ondansetron   Palonosetron   Tropisetron
Dopamine antagonists Alizapride   Bromopride   Clebopride   Domperidone   Metoclopramide   Prochlorperazine   Thiethylperazine
H1 antagonists Dimenhydrinate   Meclizine
NK1 receptor antagonists‎ Aprepitant   Fosaprepitant   Maropitant
Motion sickness‎ Cinnarizine   Dimenhydrinate   Meclizine   Meclizine/Pyridoxine   Scopolamine (Patch)
Pregnancy Meclizine/Pyridoxine   Ondansetron
Veterinary Maropitant