Dorzolamide

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Dorzolamide.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Dorzolamide, is a carbonic-anhydrase inhibitor, an enzyme found in many tissues of the body, including the eye. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes of the eye decreases aqueous humour secretion, presumably by slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport. The result is a reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP).

Raised pressure inside the eye causes damage to the retina and to the optic nerve. This can result in serious loss of vision and even blindness. By lowering the pressure inside the eye, Dorzolamide reduces the risk of damage to these structures.

[edit] INDICATIONS

Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. . Dorzolamide is used as an add-on to beta-blockers (Timolol) or prostaglandin analogues (Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, Tafluprost, Travoprost), or on its own in patients who cannot take or do not respond to beta-blockers.

[edit] DOSAGE

One drop into the affected eye(s) 2-3 times daily. shake suspension before use. If more than one type of eye-drop medicine is being used, each one should be given at least 5-10 minutes apart.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • hypersensitivity to Dorzolamide

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Dorzolamide is a sulfonamide and although administered topically is absorbed systemically. Therefore the same types of adverse reactions that are attributable to sulfonamides may occur with topical administration. Patients should be advised that if serious or unusual reactions including severe skin reactions or signs of hypersensitivity occur, they should discontinue the use of the product.

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

  • Pregnancy Category C (US). Dorzolamide should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
  • Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether Dorzolamide is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Most frequent adverse events were ocular burning, stinging, or discomfort immediately following ocular administration (approximately one-third of patients). Approximately one-quarter of patients noted a bitter taste following administration.

Systemic events reported infrequently: headache, nausea, asthenia/fatigue

[edit] RELATED LINKS

Understanding Glaucoma

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES