Midazolam

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Midazolam.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Midazolam, like other Benzodiazepines bind to specific sites on the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors. This enhances the effects of GABA by increasing its affinity for the GABAA receptor.

Activation of the GABAA receptor, which is linked to a chloride channel (Cl-), results in an influx of Cl- into the neurone causing hyperpolarisation, which results in inhibitory effects on the central nervous system.

Benzodiazepines action on GABAA receptors appears to produce their anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, hypnotic and anticonvulsant actions.

Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine, its effects on the CNS are dependent on the dose administered, the route of administration and the presence or absence of other premedications.

[edit] INDICATIONS

  • Midazolam tablets are used for the short term treatment of insomnia.
  • Midazolam tablets are also used before an operation to produce sleepiness or drowsiness and to relieve anxiety.
  • Midazolam buccal route (Buccolam): is used for emergency management of status epilepticus (prolonged seizures) in children and adolescents (from 3 months to less than 18 years of age)

[edit] DOSAGE

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to Midazolam or to any drug in the benzodiazepine class
  • Severe liver failure
  • Pregnancy and lactation
  • Myasthenia gravis (Midazolam could increase the muscle weakness)
  • Severe respiratory failure
  • Sleep apnoea syndrome (a condition where you stop breathing whilst asleep)
  • Patients in shock, coma or acute alcoholic intoxication

[edit] PRECAUTIONS

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

  • Not recommended during pregnancy and in nursing mothers

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

[edit] RELATED LINKS

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES

Sedatives / Hypnotics / Anxiolytics
Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines (Anxiolytics)‎ Alprazolam (Xanax)   Bromazepam (Lexotan, Lexotanil)   Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)   Clobazam (Frisium)   Clorazepate (Tranxene)   Clotiazepam (Rizen, Tienor)   Delorazepam (EN)   Diazepam (Valium)   Etizolam (Depas)   Ketazolam   Lorazepam (Ativan, Control, Lorans, Tavor, Temesta)   Lormetazepam (Noctamid)   Nordazepam (Nordaz)   Oxazepam (Serepax)   Prazepam (Demetrin, Lysanxia)
Benzodiazepines (Hypnotics) Brotizolam (Lendormin, Bondormin, Dormex, Sintonal, Noctilan)   Clobazam (Frisium)   Estazolam (Esilgan, ProSom)   Etizolam (Depas, Pasaden, Etilaam, Etizest)   Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)   Flurazepam (Dalmadorm, Dalmane, Felison, Flunox, Valdorm)   Ketazolam (Anseren, Anxon)   Lorazepam (Ativan, Control, Lorans, Tavor, Temesta)   Lormetazepam (Loramet, Minias, Noctamid, Pronoctan, Evamyl)   Midazolam (Dormicum, Hypnovel)   Nitrazepam (Mogadon, Nitrados, Numbon, Radedorm, Alodorm)   Nordazepam (Madar, Nordaz, Stilny, Tranxilium N)   Temazepam (Normison, Restoril, Tenox, Temaze)   Triazolam (Halcion, Hypam, Rilamir)
Non-Benzodiazepine Hypnotics Eszopiclone (Lunesta)   Zolpidem (Ambien, Stilnox, Hypnogen, Sanval, Stilnoct, Zoldem, Zolsana)   Zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane)
Melatonin agonists Melatonin (Circadin)   Ramelteon (Rozerem)
Orexin agonists Suvorexant (Belsomra)