Torasemide

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Torasemide belongs to a group of drugs called diuretics or ‘water tablets’ that help to remove excess retained water from the body.

Torasemide is used to treat high blood pressure and edema (fluid retention) caused by heart failure

Contents

[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Torasemide.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Torasemide is a loop diuretic. it inhibits Na+/K+/2 Cl- Co-transport in thick ascending limb, thus preventing the transport of sodium from the lumen of the loop of Henle into the basolateral interstitium.

This co-transporter is responsible for 25% of the active sodium reabsorption.

Torasemide is at least twice as potent as furosemide (another loop diuretic). It produces equivalent diuresis and natriuresis at lower urinary concentrations and has a longer duration of action, allowing once-daily administration[1]

[edit] INDICATIONS

  • Edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic disease, and renal disease.
  • Treatment of hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents

[edit] DOSAGE

Tablets, Adults:

  • Hypertension: The usual initial dose is 5 mg once daily. If the 5 mg dose does not provide adequate reduction in blood pressure within 4-6 weeks, the dose may be increased to 10 mg once daily. If the response to 10 mg is insufficient, an additional antihypertensive agent should be added to the treatment regimen.
  • Congestive Heart Failure: Torsemide initial dose is 10 mg or 20 mg once daily. If the diuretic response is inadequate, the dose should be titrated upward by approximately doubling until the desired diuretic response is obtained. Single doses higher than 200 mg have not been adequately studied.
  • Chronic Renal Failure: Torsemide initial dose is 20 mg once daily. If the diuretic response is inadequate, the dose should be titrated upward by approximately doubling until the desired diuretic response is obtained. Single doses higher than 200 mg have not been adequately studied.
  • Hepatic Cirrhosis: Torsemide initial dose is 5 mg or 10 mg once daily administered together with an aldosterone antagonist or a potassium-sparing diuretic. If the diuretic response is inadequate, the dose should be titrated upward by approximately doubling until the desired diuretic response is obtained. Single doses higher than 40 mg have not been adequately studied.


Torsemide tablets may be given at any time regardless to food, as convenient. Special dosage adjustment in the elderly is not necessary

Torsemide has been administered together with beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and calcium-channel blockers. Adverse drug interactions have not been observed, and special dosage adjustment has not been necessary.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Contraindicated in patients with anuria and in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to sulfonylureas

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Ototoxicity: Tinnitus and hearing loss (usually reversible) have been observed after rapid intravenous injection of other loop diuretics and have also been observed after oral torsemide. It is not certain that these events were attributable to torsemide. Ototoxicity has also been seen in animal studies when very high plasma levels of torsemide were induced.
  • Potassium: In patients with cardiovascular disease, especially those receiving digitalis glycosides (Digoxin), diuretic-induced hypokalemia may be a risk factor for the development of arrhythmias. The risk of hypokalemia is greatest in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, in patients experiencing a brisk diuresis, in patients who are receiving inadequate oral intake of electrolytes, and in patients receiving concomitant therapy with corticosteroids or ACTH. Periodic monitoring of serum potassium and other electrolytes is advised in patients treated with torsemide.

[edit] INTERACTIONS

  • In patients with essential hypertension, torsemide has been administered together with beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and calcium-channel blockers. In patients with congestive heart failure, torsemide has been administered together with digitalis glycosides, ACE inhibitors and organic nitrates. None of these combined uses were associated with new or unexpected adverse events.
  • Salicylate: Because torsemide and salicylates compete for secretion by renal tubules, patients receiving high doses of salicylates may experience salicylate toxicity when torsemide is concomitantly administered.

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

Pregnancy Category B (US). Torasemide should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether torsemide is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when torsemide is administered to a nursing woman.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

The most common side effects (in descending order of frequency) dizziness, headache, nausea, weakness, vomiting, hyperglycemia, excessive urination, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, excessive thirst, hypovolemia, impotence, esophageal hemorrhage and dyspepsia

[edit] RELATED LINKS

[edit] REFERENCES

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1706990
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Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Azilsartan (Edarbi)   Candesartan (Atacand)   Eprosartan (Teveten)   Irbesartan (Aprovel, Avapro, Karvea)   Losartan (Cozaar)   Olmesartan (Benicar, Olmetec)   Telmisartan (Micadis)   Valsartan (Diovan, Tareg)
Renin inhibitors Aliskiren (Rasilez, Tekturna)
Alpha-1 blockers Doxazosin (Cardura)   Prazosin (Minipress)   Terazosin (Hytrin)
Alpha-2 agonists (centrally acting) Clonidine (Oral route)   Clonidine (Transdermal) (Catapresan)   Guanfacine (Tenex)   Methyldopa (Aldomet)
Calcium channel blockers Dihydropyridines‎ Amlodipine (Norvasc)   Barnidipine (Vasexten)   Felodipine (Plendil)   Isradipine (Dynacirc)   Lacidipine (Lacipil, Motens)   Lercanidipine (Zanidip)   Manidipine   Nicardipine   Nifedipine (Adalat)   Nisoldipine   Nitrendipine
Benzothiazepine‎ Diltiazem (Cardizem, Taztia XT, Tiazac, Tildiem)
Phenylalkylamine‎ Gallopamil   Verapamil (Calan)
Beta blockers Beta1 selective (cardioselective) Acebutolol (Sectral)   Atenolol (Tenormin)   Betaxolol (Kerlon)   Bisoprolol (Concor)   Celiprolol (Cordiax)   Metoprolol (Betaloc, Lopressor, Toprol-XL)   Nebivolol (Bystolic, Lobivon, Nebilox)
Nonselective (Beta1 and Beta2 blockers) Oxprenolol (Trasitensin)   Propranolol (Inderal)   Timolol (Blocadren)
Nonselective (Beta1, Beta2 and Alpha1 blockers) Carvedilol (Dilatrend)   Labetalol (Trandate)
Beta blocker with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) Acebutolol (Sectral)   Celiprolol (Cordiax)
Lipophilic Beta blockers Propranolol (Inderal)   Metoprolol (Betaloc, Lopressor, Toprol-XL)   Oxprenolol (Trasitensin)
Diuretics Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Acetazolamide (Diamox)
Loop diuretics Bumetanide   Etacrynic acid   Furosemide (Lasix)   Piretanide   Torasemide (Demadex)
Thiazide diuretics Chlorothiazide (Diuril)   Hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrex)
Thiazide-like diuretics Chlortalidone (Hygroton)   Indapamide (Lozol, Lozide)   Metolazone
Potassium-sparing diuretics Epithelial sodium channel blockers: Amiloride (Midamor)   Triamterene (Dyrenium)
Aldosterone receptor antagonists: Potassium canrenoate   Eplerenone (Inspra)   Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Osmotic diuretics Mannitol
Combination therapy Amiloride/Hydrochlorothiazide (Moduretic)   Spironolactone/Hydrochlorothiazide (Aldactazide)