Pilocarpine (Ophthalmic)

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Pilocarpine Ophthalmic belongs to a group of medicines called miotics, these medicines affect muscles in the eye causing the pupil of the eye to get smaller.

Pilocarpine Ophthalmic Eye Drops are used to treat certain forms of glaucoma (an increase in the pressure within the eye) and to reverse the effect of drugs that cause the pupil of the eye to get bigger.

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Pilocarpine.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Pilocarpine is a direct-acting cholinergic agonist. It acts on a subtype of muscarinic receptor (M3) found on the iris sphincter muscle, causing the muscle to contract -resulting in pupil contraction (miosis). Pilocarpine also decreases intraocular pressure in closed angle glaucoma by opening the trabecular meshwork around Schlemm's canal. This allows for increased drainage of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye.

[edit] INDICATIONS

Pilocarpine (Ophthalmic) is indicated for:

  • The reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
  • The management of acute angle-closure glaucoma.
  • The prevention of postoperative elevated IOP associated with laser surgery.
  • The induction of miosis or to reverse mydriasis (i.e., after cycloplegic and mydriatic drugs).

[edit] DOSAGE

Instill one to two drops in the affected eye(s) three to four times a day.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

None.

[edit] WARNINNGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Poor illumination: Exercise caution in night driving and other hazardous occupations in poor illumination.
  • Pre-existing retinal disease: Rare cases of retinal detachment have been reported; a thorough examination of the retina including funduscopy is advised in all patients prior to the initiation of therapy.
  • Iritis: Caution is advised in patients with iritis.
  • Congenital glaucoma: Caution is advised in pediatric patients with primary congenital glaucoma for control of IOP as cases of a paradoxical increase in IOP have been reported.

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

  • Pregnancy Category C (US).
  • Nursing Mothers: caution should be exercised when Pilocarpine (Ophthalmic) is administered to a nursing woman.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Most common adverse reactions are headache/browache, accommodative change, eye irritation, eye pain, blurred vision, and/or visual impairment.

[edit] RELATED LINKS

Understanding Glaucoma

[edit] REFERENCES