Nitazoxanide

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Nitazoxanide.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

The antiprotozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction which is essential to anaerobic energy metabolism.

Following oral administration of Nanazoxid 500mg tablets, maximum plasma concentrations of the active metabolites tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucuronide are observed within 1-4 hours. The parent nitazoxanide is not detected in plasma

[edit] INDICATIONS

Nitazoxanide is indicated for the treatment of diarrhea caused by giardia lamblia or cryptosporidium parvum in patients 1 year of age and older

[edit] DOSAGE

  • Adults: 500 mg every 12 hours with food for 3 days.
  • 1-3 years: 100 mg nitazoxanide every 12 hours with food for 3 days
  • 4-11 years: 200 mg nitazoxanide every 12 hours with food for 3 days
  • ≥12 years: 500 mg nitazoxanide) every 12 hours with food for 3 days

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Patients with a prior hypersensitivity to nitazoxanide

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Nitazoxanide must be administered with caution to patients with hepatic and bilary diseases, to patients with renal diseases, and to patients with combined renal and hepatic disease.

[edit] INTERACTIONS

Tizoxanide is highly bound to plasma protein (>99.9%). Therefore, caution should be used when administering nitazoxanide concurrently with other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic indices, as competition for binding sites may occur (e.g., warfarin.)

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

  • Pregnancy Category B (US): No adequate and well-controlled studies are available in pregnant women.
  • Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether nitazoxanide is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when nitazoxanide is administered to a nursing women.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

The most frequent adverse events reported were: abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and headache.

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