Carprofen

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Carprofen.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with characteristic analgesic and antipyretic activity. The mechanism of action of carprofen, like that of other NSAIDs, is believed to be associated with the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity.

Two unique cyclooxygenases have been described in mammals:

  • The constitutive cyclooxygenase, COX-1, synthesizes prostaglandins necessary for normal gastrointestinal and renal function.
  • The inducible cyclooxygenase, COX-2, generates prostaglandins involved in inflammation.

Inhibition of COX-1 is thought to be associated with gastrointestinal and renal toxicity while inhibition of COX-2 provides anti-inflammatory activity.

In an in vitro study using canine cell cultures, carprofen demonstrated selective inhibition of COX-2 versus COX-1. Clinical relevance of these data has not been shown.

[edit] INDICATIONS

Carprofen is indicated for the relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and for the control of postoperative pain associated with soft tissue and orthopedic surgeries in dogs

[edit] DOSAGE

The recommended dosage for oral administration to dogs is 2 mg/lb (4 mg/kg) of body weight daily. The total daily dose may be administered as 2 mg/lb of body weight once daily or divided and administered as 1 mg/lb (2 mg/kg) twice daily. For the control of postoperative pain, administer approximately 2 hours before the procedure. Carprofen chewable tablets are palatable and willingly consumed by most dogs when offered by the owner. Therefore, they may be fed by hand or placed on food. Care should be taken to ensure that the dog consumes the complete dose.

The recommended dosage for subcutaneous administration to dogs is 2 mg/lb (4 mg/kg) of body weight daily. The total daily dose may be administered as either 2 mg/lb of body weight once daily or divided and administered as 1 mg/lb (2.2 mg/kg) twice daily. For control of postoperative pain, administer approximately 2 hours before the procedure.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Dogs exhibiting previous hypersensitivity to carprofen

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Do not use in cats.
  • Do not use in pregnant or lactating bitches
  • Use in dogs less than 6 weeks of age, or in aged dogs, may involve additional risk. If such a use cannot be avoided, dogs may require careful clinical management.
  • NSAIDs may be associated with gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic toxicity. Do not use in dogs suffering from cardiac, hepatic or renal disease, where there is a possibility of gastrointestinal

ulceration or bleeding, or where there is evidence of a blood dyscrasia.

[edit] INTERACTIONS

Concomitant use of Carprofen with other anti-inflammatory drugs, such as other NSAIDs or corticosteroids, should be avoided because of the potential increase of adverse reactions, including gastrointestinal ulcerations and/or perforations

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Adverse reactions may include decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, dark or tarry stools, increased water consumption, increased urination, pale gums due to anemia, yellowing of gums, skin or white of the eye due to jaundice, lethargy, incoordination, seizure, or behavioral changes. In most cases, side effects are transient and disappear following termination of treatment. In rare cases death has been reported.

[edit] RELATED LINKS

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rimadyl PI

[edit] REFERENCES

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors) Aceclofenac   Acetylsalicylic acid   Benzydamine   Diclofenac   Flurbiprofen   Ibuprofen   Indometacin   Ketoprofen   Ketorolac   Ketorolac   Lornoxicam   Mefenamic acid   Morniflumate   Nabumetone   Naproxen   Niflumic acid   Piroxicam   Tenoxicam
Relatively COX-2 selective Meloxicam   Nimesulide
COX-2 selective inhibitors (Coxibs) Celecoxib   Etoricoxib   Parecoxib
Ophthalmic NSAIDs Bromfenac (ophthalmic)   Diclofenac (ophthalmic)   Flurbiprofen (ophthalmic)   Ketorolac (ophthalmic)   Nepafenac (ophthalmic)
Veterinary use Carprofen   Deracoxib   Firocoxib   Mavacoxib   Robenacoxib