Bimatoprost

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Bimatoprost.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Bimatoprost, is a prostaglandin F analogue. In the eye, prostaglandin increases the drainage of the watery fluid (aqueous humour) out of the eyeball. Bimatoprost acts in the same way and increases the outflow of aqueous humour via trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral pathways. This helps to reduce the intraocular pressure.

Raised pressure in the eye causes damage to the retina and to the optic nerve that sends signals from the eye to the brain. This can result in serious vision loss and even blindness. By lowering the pressure, Bimatoprost reduces the risk of damage.

Reduction of the intraocular pressure starts approximately 4 hours after the first administration with maximum effect reached within approximately 8 to 12 hours.

[edit] INDICATIONS

  • Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. (Lumigan)
  • To treat hypotrichosis of the eyelashes by increasing their growth including length, thickness and darkness (Latisse)

[edit] DOSAGE

  • Ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma: The recommended dosage is one drop of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0,01% or 0,03% in the conjunctival sac of the affected eye(s) once daily.
    Optimal effect is obtained if the dose is administered in the evening.
    When using nasolacrimal occlusion or closing the eyelids gently, the systemic absorption is reduced. This may result in a decrease in systemic side effects and an increase in local activity.
    Remove contact lenses prior to application and wait 15 minutes after instillation of the dose before reinsertion.
  • To treat hypotrichosis of the eyelashes (Latisse): Apply nightly directly to the skin of the upper eyelid margin at the base of the eyelashes using the accompanying applicators. Blot any excess solution beyond the eyelid margin. Dispose of the applicator after one use. Repeat for the opposite eyelid margin using a new sterile applicator

[edit] DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • Lumigan: Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.01%, Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03%
  • Latisse: Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03%.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to any component

[edit] WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Pigmentation: Bimatoprost may gradually change the eye colour by increasing the number of melanosomes (pigment granules) in melanocytes. This change may be permanent. Increased pigmentation of periorbital tissue (eyelid) and eyelashes has been reported as well.
  • Eyelash changes: Bimatoprost may increase the length, thickness, colour and/or number of eyelashes and may cause unusual hair growth on your eyelids. eyelash changes are usually reversible.

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

  • Pregnancy Category C (US). Bimatoprost should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
  • It is not known whether Bimatoprost 0.01% and 0.03% is excreted in human milk, although in animal studies, bimatoprost has been shown to be excreted in breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Bimatoprost is administered to a nursing woman.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Reported treatment-related undesirable effect include: conjunctival hyperemia (range 25%–45%), visual disturbance, eye discomfort, foreign body sensation, ocular pruritus, iris hyperpigmentation, periocular hyperpigmentation, changes in eyelashes (increased length, thickness, number of lashes and discolouration), dry eye, excessive, increased lacrimation and photophobia.

Systemic adverse reactions reported in approximately 10% of patients with bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions were infections (primarily colds and upper respiratory tract infections). Other systemic adverse reactions (reported in 1 to 5% of patients) included headaches, abnormal liver function tests, and asthenia.

[edit] RELATED LINKS

Understanding Glaucoma

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES