Tazarotene

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

Tazarotene.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

  • Psoriasis: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease that is characterized by the hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes and by inflammation. Topical Tazarotene, a synthetic retinoid, modulates all three pathogenic factors in psoriasis: abnormal keratinocyte differentiation, hyperproliferation, and increased expression of inflammatory markers.
  • Acne: Acne occurs when pilosebaceous units become obstructed with plugs of sebum and desquamated keratinocytes then colonized with the normal skin anaerobe Propionibacterium acnes. Tazarotene's primary mechanism of action is to normalize the keratinization pattern in acne and decrease the coherence of follicular keratinocytes, thus achieving a comedolytic effect against existing comedones and preventing the development of new microcomedones. Tazarotene may also have direct or indirect activity against inflammatory acne
  • Chronically photodamaged skin: Tazarotene may help reduce the appearance of fine wrinkles and lines. This may be due to stimulating production of collagen protein and helping with the growth and replacement of skin cells. Tazarotene appears to be at least as effective as tretinoin against wrinkles. Furthermore, in one study 0.1% tazarotene reduced wrinkles faster and more significantly then 0.05% tretinoin over a 24-week period.

[edit] INDICATIONS

  • Topical treatment of plaque psoriasis
  • Topical treatment of acne vulgaris
  • Adjunctive treatment of chronically photodamaged skin (facial fine wrinkling, mottled facial hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, and benign facial lentigines).

[edit] DOSAGE

  • For psoriasis: Apply Tazarotene (0.05% or 0.1%) once a day, in the evening, to psoriatic lesions, using enough to cover only the lesions with a thin film.
  • For acne: Cleanse the skin thoroughly. After the skin is dry, apply a thin film of Tazarotene (0.1%) once a day, in the evening to the skin where acne lesions appear. Use enough to cover the entire affected area. If any makeup is present it should be removed before applying Tazarotene to the face.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to any of the components.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Retinoids should not be used on eczematous skin, as they may cause severe irritation.

[edit] PRECAUTIONS

  • Avoid excessive exposure to UV light (use of a solarium or PUVA therapy) during treatment
  • Patients should be warned to use sunscreens (minimum SPF of 15) and protective clothing when using Tazarotene
  • Avoid contact with eyes and mouth. If contact with eyes occurs, rinse thoroughly with water

[edit] INTERACTIONS

  • Concomitant dermatologic medications and cosmetics that have a strong drying effect should be avoided.

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACT.

  • Pregnancy Category X (US). Tazarotene is contraindicated in women who are pregnant or who intend to become pregnant during treatment. Female patients should be advised to use adequate contraceptive measures during treatment.
  • Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when tazarotene is administered to a nursing woman.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Tazarotene may cause a transitory feeling of burning or stinging. If irritation becomes problematic, the dosage may be altered by choosing the lower drug concentration (in psoriasis only) or temporarily reducing the frequency of application (in psoriasis and acne)

The most frequently reported adverse events were pruritus, erythema, burning skin and skin irritation, other common adverse events include desquamation, dermatitis, pain skin, psoriasis worsened, eczema, dry skin and increased chance of sunburn.

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