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 BRAND NAMES
 MECHANISM OF ACTION
Optic nerve head damage and visual field loss are the result of elevated intraocular pressure, whether acute or chronic in duration.
Apraclonidine is a relatively selective, alpha adrenergic agonist. When instilled into the eye, Apraclonidine have the action of reducing elevated, as well as normal intraocular pressure, whether or not accompanied by glaucoma. The onset of the ocular hypotensive action of apraclonidine usually occurs within one hour and the peak pressure reduction can usually be seen three to five hours after administration of a single dose.
- 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution: Short-term adjunctive therapy in patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who require additional intraocular pressure reduction. The benefit for most patients is less than one month.
The addition of Apraclonidine Eye Drops to patients already using two aqueous suppressing drugs (i.e. beta-blocker plus carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) as part of their maximally tolerated medical therapy may not provide additional benefit. This is because apraclonidine is an aqueous-suppressing drug and the addition of a third aqueous suppressant may not significantly reduce IOP.
- 1% Ophthalmic Solution: Prevention and treatment of postsurgical intraocular pressure elevation (laser eye surgery)
- 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution: One to two drops should be instilled in the affected eye(s) three times daily.
- 1% Ophthalmic Solution: One drop should be instilled in the scheduled operative eye one hour before initiating anterior segment laser surgery and a second drop should be instilled to the same eye immediately upon completion of the laser surgical procedure.
- Patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy
- Patients with hypersensitivity to Apraclonidine or to clonidine.
Apraclonidine may reduce pulse and blood pressure, caution in using drugs such as beta-blockers (ophthalmic and systemic), antihypertensives, and cardiac glycosides is advised. Patients using cardiovascular drugs concurrently with Apraclonidine should have pulse and blood pressures frequently monitored
 PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
- Pregnancy Category C (US): Apraclonidine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
- Nursing Mothers: It is not known if topically applied Apraclonidine Ophthalmic Solution is excreted in human milk.
 SIDE EFFECTS
- Common Ocular adverse reactions (affect 1 to 10 people in 100): hyperemia (increased redness ), discomfort, watery eyes, swelling of the eyelids, gritty feeling in the eye, dry eye, eyelid crusting.
- Most common: Dry mouth
- Less common: inflammation inside the nose, dermatitis, dry nose, weakness, headache and taste perversion