Triazolam (Halcion) belongs to a group of medicines called benzodiazepines.
They are thought to work by their action on brain chemicals.
Triazolam (Halcion) is used for the short-term treatment of severe insomnia (difficulty in falling asleep or sleeping properly).
Anyone who is considering using benzodiazepines should be aware of both their benefits and several important risks and limitations, including diminishing effectiveness with continued use and the possible development of dependence (addiction) and possibly mental changes particularly when the drugs are used for more than a few days to a week.
 BRAND NAMES
- Australia : Halcion
- Canada: Apo-Triazo, Halcion
- Germany: Halcion
- International : Halcion
- Italy : Halcion
- New Zealand: Hypam CONSUMER MEDICINE INFORMATION
- Spain: Halcion
- Switzerland: Halcion
- US: Halcion PI
 MECHANISM OF ACTION
Triazolam, like other Benzodiazepines bind to specific sites on the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors. This enhances the effects of GABA by increasing its affinity for the GABAA receptor.
Activation of the GABAA receptor, which is linked to a chloride channel (Cl-), results in an influx of Cl- into the neurone causing hyperpolarisation, which results in inhibitory effects on the central nervous system.
Benzodiazepines action on GABAA receptors appears to produce their anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, hypnotic and anticonvulsant actions.
Triazolam has a short plasma half-life reported to be in the range of 1.5 to 5.5 hours, so unlike benzodiazepine drugs with long half-lives, Triazolam is less likely to be associated with impairments of cognitive and motor performance during waking hours.
Short-term treatment of insomnia (generally 7–10 days).
The recommended dose for most adults is 0.125-0.25 mg before retiring.
In elderly and/or debilitated patients it is recommended that treatment with Triazolam be initiated at 0.125 mg to decrease the possibility of development of oversedation, dizziness, or impaired coordination.
- Hypersensitivity to Triazolam
- Coadministration with very potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 like ketoconazole, itraconazole, nefazodone and macrolide antibiotics (e.g. erythromycin, clarithromycin) , medications that significantly impair the oxidative metabolism mediated by CYP3A4 and then decrease the clearance of triazolam.
 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Do not drive or do other dangerous activities after taking Triazolam until you feel fully awake.
- Do not drink alcohol
- Caution is required in patients with chronic respiratory failure (risk of respiratory depression).
- Use of benzodiazepines can lead to dependence. This risk increases with dose and duration of treatment.
- CYP3A inhibitors : Ketoconazole, Itraconazole, Nefazodone, Macrolide antibiotics, Isoniazid, Oral contraceptives and Grapefruit juice increase the maximum plasma concentration of triazolam, decrease clearance, and increase half-life.
 PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
- Pregnancy Category X (US). Benzodiazepines may cause fetal damage when administered during pregnancy. An increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide during the first trimester of pregnancy has been suggested in several studies. Transplacental distribution has resulted in neonatal CNS depression following the ingestion of therapeutic doses of a benzodiazepine hypnotic during the last weeks of pregnancy.
Triazolam is contraindicated in pregnant women. If there is a likelihood of the patient becoming pregnant while receiving Triazolam, she should be warned of the potential risk to the fetus. Patients should be instructed to discontinue the drug prior to becoming pregnant. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered.
- Administration of Triazolam to nursing mothers is not recommended.
 SIDE EFFECTS
Common side effects include: drowsiness, headache, dizziness, lightheadedness, "pins and needles" feelings on your skin, difficulty with coordination.
Rare cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including Triazolam. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. 
 RELATED LINKS
|Sedatives / Hypnotics / Anxiolytics|
|Benzodiazepines||Benzodiazepines (Anxiolytics)||Alprazolam (Xanax) • Bromazepam (Lexotan, Lexotanil) • Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) • Clobazam (Frisium) • Clorazepate (Tranxene) • Clotiazepam (Rizen, Tienor) • Delorazepam (EN) • Diazepam (Valium) • Etizolam (Depas) • Ketazolam • Lorazepam (Ativan, Control, Lorans, Tavor, Temesta) • Lormetazepam (Noctamid) • Nordazepam (Nordaz) • Oxazepam (Serepax) • Prazepam (Demetrin, Lysanxia)|
|Benzodiazepines (Hypnotics)||Brotizolam (Lendormin, Bondormin, Dormex, Sintonal, Noctilan) • Clobazam (Frisium) • Estazolam (Esilgan, ProSom) • Etizolam (Depas, Pasaden, Etilaam, Etizest) • Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) • Flurazepam (Dalmadorm, Dalmane, Felison, Flunox, Valdorm) • Ketazolam (Anseren, Anxon) • Lorazepam (Ativan, Control, Lorans, Tavor, Temesta) • Lormetazepam (Loramet, Minias, Noctamid, Pronoctan, Evamyl) • Midazolam (Dormicum, Hypnovel) • Nitrazepam (Mogadon, Nitrados, Numbon, Radedorm, Alodorm) • Nordazepam (Madar, Nordaz, Stilny, Tranxilium N) • Temazepam (Normison, Restoril, Tenox, Temaze) • Triazolam (Halcion, Hypam, Rilamir)|
|Non-Benzodiazepine Hypnotics||Eszopiclone (Lunesta) • Zolpidem (Ambien, Stilnox, Hypnogen, Sanval, Stilnoct, Zoldem, Zolsana) • Zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane)|
|Melatonin agonists||Melatonin (Circadin) • Ramelteon (Rozerem)|
|Orexin agonists||Suvorexant (Belsomra)|