Aminophylline

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

  • International: Phyllocontin, Truphylline
  • Italy: Aminomal, Tefamin

[edit] STRUCTURE

Aminophylline.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Aminophylline is a complex of theophylline-ethylenediamine, it has greater water solubility than Theophylline. Therefore it is particularly suitable for both oral and parenteral administration.

Compared to theophylline, Aminophylline is less potent and has a shorter duration of action. They have both the same mechanism of action; they work as a bronchodilator by the relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle by inhibiting phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cAMP in 5 AMP, with resultant cAMP accumulation.

Recently, many clinical and experimental investigations have shown their ability to inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators (histamine) from mast cells. Additionally, they may improve diaphragm muscle contractility and stimulate the medullary respiratory center.[1]

[edit] INDICATIONS

  • Treatment and prophylaxis of bronchospasm associated with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and chronic bronchitis.
  • Treatment of left ventricular and congestive cardiac failure in adults

[edit] DOSAGE

Adult, Bronchospasm: orally, 200mg 4 times a day. maximum 400mg 4 times a day.

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to xanthines

[edit] PRECAUTIONS

  • Use with caution in patients with cardiac arrhythmias, peptic ulcer, hyperthyroidism, severe hypertension, hepatic dysfunction, chronic alcoholism or acute febrile illness.
  • In the elderly, the half-life of Aminophylline may be prolonged (A reduction of dosage may be necessary).
  • Avoid in patients with a history of seizure activity

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

Pregnancy category C. Aminophylline should not be administered during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.

Aminophylline is secreted in breast milk and may be associated with irritability in the infant; therefore it should only be given to breast feeding women when the anticipated benefits outweigh the risk to the child.

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

Nausea, gastric irritation, headache, hypokalemia, CNS stimulation, tachycardia, palpitations, arrhythmias and convulsions

[edit] RELATED LINKS

[edit] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[edit] REFERENCES

  1. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/304381-treatment
Asthma / Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Adrenergics, inhalants Short acting β2-agonists Fenoterol (Berotec)   Levosalbutamol (Xopenex)   Salbutamol (Ventolin)   Terbutaline (Bricanyl)
Long acting β2-agonists (LABA) Arformoterol (Brovana)   Clenbuterol (Spiropent)   Formoterol (Foradil)   Salmeterol (Serevent)
Ultra long acting β2-agonists Indacaterol   Olodaterol   Vilanterol
Inhaled corticosteroids Beclomethasone (Inhaler)   Budesonide (Inhaler)   Ciclesonide (Inhaler)   Flunisolide (Inhalation suspension)   Fluticasone (Inhaler)   Mometasone (Inhaler)
Anticholinergics (Muscarinic antagonists) Aclidinium bromide   Glycopyrronium bromide   Ipratropium bromide   Oxitropium bromide (Inhalation suspension)   Tiotropium bromide
Mast cell stabilizers Cromoglicate   Nedocromil
Monoclonal anti-IgE antibody Omalizumab
Xanthine derivatives Aminophylline   Bamifylline   Doxofylline   Dyphylline   Theophylline
Eicosanoid inhibition Leukotriene antagonists Montelukast   Pranlukast   Zafirlukast
Thromboxane receptor antagonists Ramatroban   Seratrodast
Non-xanthine PDE4 inhibitors Ibudilast   Roflumilast
Combination products Corticosteroid + Long acting Beta2 agonist Beclomethasone/Formoterol (Inhaler)   Fluticasone/Salmeterol (Inhaler)   Fluticasone/Vilanterol   Mometasone/Formoterol
Corticosteroid + Short acting Beta2 agonist Beclomethasone/Salbutamol   Salbutamol/Flunisolide (Inhalation suspension)   Salbutamol/Flunisolide (Inhaler)
Short acting Beta2 agonist + Muscarinic antagonist Fenoterol/Ipratropium bromide (Inhaler)   Levosalbutamol/Ipratropium   Salbutamol/Ipratropium bromide