Amikacin

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[edit] BRAND NAMES

[edit] STRUCTURE

File:Amikacin.jpg

[edit] MECHANISM OF ACTION

Amikacin is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from kanamycin A. Similar to other aminoglycosides, amikacin disrupts bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosome of susceptible organisms causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.

[edit] INDICATIONS

Amikacin is usually used as a last-resort medication against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

It is indicated for short-term treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Providencia species, Serratia specie and Providencia stuartii. Amikacin may also be used to treat Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.

[edit] DOSAGE

[edit] CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Hypersensitivity to amikacin

[edit] PRECAUTIONS

[edit] INTERACTIONS

[edit] PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

[edit] SIDE EFFECTS

All aminoglycosides have the potential to induce Ototoxicity, and renal toxicity and neuromuscular blockade. They occur more frequently in patients with present or past history of renal impairment, of treatment with other ototoxic or nephrotoxic drugs, and in patients treated for longer periods and/or with higher doses than recommended.

Neurotoxicity-Ototoxicity: Toxic effects on the eighth cranial nerve can result in hearing loss, loss of balance, or both. Amikacin primarily affects auditory function. Cochlear damage, includes high frequency deafness and usually occurs before clinical hearing loss can be detected.

Neurotoxicity-Neuromuscular Blockage: Acute muscular paralysis and apnea can occur following treatment with aminoglycoside drugs.

Nephrotoxicity: Elevation of serum creatinine, albuminuria, presence of red and white cells, casts, azotemia, and oliguria have been reported. Renal function changes are usually reversible when the drug is discontinued. As would be expected with any aminoglycoside, reports of toxic nephropathy and acute renal failure have been received during postmarketing surveillance.

Other: In addition to those described above, other adverse reactions which have been reported on rare occasions are skin rash, drug fever, headache, paresthesia, tremor, nausea and vomiting, eosinophilia, arthralgia, anemia, hypotension, and hypomagnesemia. Macular infarction sometimes leading to permanent loss of vision has been reported following intravitreous administration (injection into the eye) of amikacin.

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