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[×] Entry inhibitors
 BRAND NAMES
- Canada: Ziagen Product Monograph/Monographie
- Europe: Ziagen EPAR summary for the public, Prescribing Information
- International: Ziagen
- Italy: Ziagen Riassunto EMA, monografia
- Lebanon: Abamune 300mg
- US: Ziagen Prescribing Information
 COMBINATION FORMULATIONS
 MECHANISM OF ACTION
Abacavir (ABC) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor(NRTI). It is a guanosine analogue which is phosporylated to the active metabolite, carbovir triphosphate (CBV-TP), an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5 -triphosphate (dGTP) which interferes with HIV viral replication via RNA dependent DNA polymerase.
The lack of a 3' -OH group in the incorporated nucleotide analogue prevents the formation of the 5 to 3 phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, and therefore, the viral DNA growth is terminated.
Abacavir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
- Adults: 600 mg daily, administered as either 300 mg twice daily or 600 mg once daily.
- Pediatric patients aged 3 months and older: 8 mg/kg twice daily (up to a maximum of 300 mg twice daily)
 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
- Tablets: 300 mg, scored
- Oral Solution: 20 mg/mL
- Previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to abacavir.
- Moderate or severe hepatic impairment
 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Hypersensitivity: Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been associated with Abacavir and other abacavir-containing products.
- Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues.
- Immune reconstitution syndrome and redistribution/accumulation of body fat have been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy
- Ethanol: Decreases elimination of abacavir.
- Methadone: An increased methadone dose may be required in a small number of patients
 PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
- Pregnancy Category C (US). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Abacavir should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits outweigh the risk.
- Nursing Mothers: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Although it is not known if abacavir is excreted in human milk, abacavir is secreted into the milk of lactating rats. Because of both the potential for HIV-1 transmission and the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed if they are receiving Abacavir.
 SIDE EFFECTS
The most commonly reported adverse reactions of at least moderate intensity (incidence ≥10%) in adult HIV-1 clinical trials were nausea, headache, malaise and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and dreams/sleep disorders.
The most commonly reported adverse reactions of at least moderate intensity (incidence ≥5%) in pediatric HIV-1 clinical trials were fever and/or chills, nausea and vomiting, skin rashes, and ear/nose/throat infections